茶園管理技術的革新

如何提高工作效率,同時又能提升茶園的美觀?

茶園管理在此主要關於剪枝與採茶方面,剪枝是為了茶樹種植之後,減少水分的蒸發,同時將發育較差的部分予以去除,適當提高產量與品質。目前台灣剪枝技術有採用小型茶樹中剪枝機,可以透過單人同時完成剪枝與碎枝作業(圖一),抑或利用單人剪枝機或雙人剪枝機(圖二)來完成[1-2]。

採茶技術方面,以需要兩人拉抬的雙人式採茶機較為普遍使用(圖三與圖四) [1-3]。

使用機械最主要在於降低生產成本,減少勞工的負擔,因此近年來,從日本引進的軌道式系統能搭載不同機具,則更能有效提高工作效率。在茶行兩旁架設管架軌道,提供台車行駛,台車上可以搭載剪枝機或採茶機,透過機器在軌道上行走(圖五),剪枝機或採茶機可以準確地調整作業高度,因此效果良好,而原本使用需要兩人拉抬的作業機器,也因為可以將機器裝載於此台車上,達到節省勞力的結果。在軌道上進行作業的台車不只能同時進行剪枝時的多項作業,也能搭載噴藥機,一次可以進行三行茶樹的噴灑作業,減少噴藥時間並提高效率,還能利用軌道搬運茶葉等材料,減少運送時勞力的負擔。另外,原本透過人力拉動的台車,經過電力加裝之後(圖六),台車變成可以自動化行走於軌道上進行作業,不只方便,也節省許多人力與時間,而透過使用軌道式系統進行作業,還能統一各行茶樹的外觀,有顯著提升茶園美觀的效果[3-4]。

雙人式採茶機 需要兩人同時拉抬使用,來回進行採收。
軌道式系統 可以透過電力安裝達到自動化作業,省時省力,還能美化茶園。

在缺少人力與人力成本高昂的時代,更應該要專注於能夠有效降低生產成本,並提升工作效率的作業方法,但是採用軌道式系統的前提是田頭田尾都必須留有空地,茶園也需要統一進行整體規劃,才能方便軌道作業的進行,同時軌道式系統只能在較為平坦的地面進行,因此使用上可能仍較有所限制。不過在採茶技術方面,日本目前也積極發展出能夠在輕斜地上使用的採茶機械(圖七)[4],這或許可以是台灣下一個學習引進的技術之一。

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃茶藝.

 

The innovation of tea garden management techniques

Here are about the aspects of tea pruning and plucking. Pruning can reduce the water to evaporate, and remove the poorly developed parts, which helps tea trees grow better, and improves the production and the quality of tea. Small tea tree pruning machine is a tool adopted in Taiwanese tea garden at present to finish pruning and crushing simultaneously by individuals(Figure 1). Pruning machine used by individual or two people is available as well(Figure 2) [1-2].

In the aspect of tea plucking, plucking machine lifted by two people on each side is widely used now(Figure 3 and 4)[1-3].

The purpose of using machines is to lower both the cost of production and the work of labor. Therefore, adopting rail system equipped with different tools, the technique learned from Japan, can improve work efficiency more. First, set two rails along each row of tea on each side to make the trolley operate. The trolley can carry pruning or plucking machine(Figure 5). Pruning or plucking machine operating on the rail can adjust the height of operation accurately to maximize the effect. Furthermore, plucking machine lifted by two people originally can be equipped with the trolley now, which also reduces the burden of labor[3-4].

The trolley traveling on the rail can not only operate multiple works when pruning but also carry spraying machine to reduce the time of spraying and raise the efficiency by spraying three rows of tea trees once. The trolley traveling on the rail can also operate other several tasks, such as transport tea or fertilizer. In addition, the trolley pulled by labor originally can be installed electricity system to operate automatically on the rail. It is more convenient, time-saving and effort-saving. Furthermore, managing tea garden by the rail system can help consist each row of tea trees, and benefit the beautiful appearance[3-4].

plucking machine lifted by two people needs two people on each side to use plucking machine back and forth to pick tea.
rail system can operate automatically by installing electricity system. Save time, effort, and beautify the appearance.

In the era that the shortage of human resource and the high cost of human resource both exist, it should emphasize the techniques which can effectively lower the cost of production and raise the efficiency of work. However, it needs to leave some spaces both at the beginning and the end of the tea garden if adopting the rail system. Meanwhile, the management of tea garden needs the overall planning to make the rail system operate smoothly. The rail system could only limited operate on the flat ground. Nevertheless, Japan has developed plucking machine that can be used on the lightly oblique ground so far (Figure 7)[4]. This may be the next technique which Taiwan can learn.

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃茶藝.

 

Reference

[1]http://www.tres.gov.tw/view.php?catid=1671

[2]http://www.tres.gov.tw/view.php?catid=1677 [3]http://bio-machinery.blogspot.tw/2007/05/blog-post_5185.html

[4]https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjwxMSgzI7NAhWCL6YKHQYPCWsQFggvMAQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Freport.nat.gov.tw%2FReportFront%2Freport_download.jspx%3FsysId%3DC10404313%26fileNo%3D002&usg=AFQjCNE5jCJozwr9HEGXt5dzpyuYEiTHxA

Lynn Chiang

發表迴響