有機農業議題

有機農業的規範內容都是合理的制定嗎?

有機|茶葉|自然農法|Organic|茶水部|LittoTea
有機|茶葉|自然農法|Organic|茶水部|LittoTea

有機農業原有的目的是追求環境永續經營,以及促進農村資源發展與使用,但在台灣大家往往只注重農藥檢驗殘留標準的部分,認為只要零農藥檢測就一定是好的有機農產品。然而,有機農業應該包含整體的農產品製作過程,從耕種環境的經營到維護生態平衡的方法等,因此除了不使用農藥與化學肥料之外,有機農業的生產環境與過程,例如水質與土壤等,均需要加以記錄,而不只有著重無毒生產的部分。不過,目前台灣規定有機農產品的農藥殘留檢驗必須是零檢出,相對國外檢驗標準可以容許微量的農藥殘留,茶水部 LittoTea認為不應該只一味看重農藥殘留與標準規定的符合,而是需要真正落實對環境與消費者破壞的最小化,其中有機認證也可以說只是對環境友善的一種方法而已。歐美國家除了制定農藥殘留檢驗標準之外,還包含一定比例的有機原料或成分使用[1-5]。

在有機農業認證方面,茶水部 LittoTea 發現, 台灣農地密集,因此要維持耕種環境的零污染本身就已經很困難,加上可能為了減少汙染或遇到病蟲害而大大降低產量,最後是每年均需要定期接受檢驗,確認後才能獲得有機農業的認證,而消費者平常卻只需要付出較少的金錢代價就可以享受到有機農產品,但對於小農來說,背後所付出的心力、承擔的成本與代價都可能相當的龐大[1-5]。

另外,有機農業有一個值得思考的價值即是在地產銷的概念,因為有機農業的目的就是要追求永續經營,回歸到農產品本身,其中交通運輸除了列為成本之外,過程中所造成的汙染反而有可能與環境永續發展的概念互相違背,因此與其只專注在認證的象徵形式上,透過交通運輸成本與污染的最小化,原地產銷或許可以成為未來發展的方向之一。例如奧地利使用兩種標章來區別農產品產地的差異,達到支持本地農民以及推廣產地農產品的效果,產地就近販售還能減少交通運輸的污染,而同時可以讓消費者了解農產品產地,也能鼓勵他們購買本地生產的農產品,保障他們與農民的權益 [4-5]。

自然農法類似有機農業的概念,但可以說是更擴大到整個生態圈的流動,自然農法並不只是將農藥與化學肥料替換成有機肥料而已,而是尊重大自然的發展,建立一個生態圈,維持環境的自然流動,這也是茶水部LittoTea生態平衡上堅持的初衷。

自然農法大概可以分為三種不同的類別 [7-10]:

  1. 尊重與順應大自然,發揮土地原有的力量,減少土壤養分的流失,採用堆肥的目的是維持土壤養分,因為土壤是孕育農作物的一切來源,同時也能夠減少對空氣與水質的汙染,因此不只限於生產安全的農產品,而是透過自然農耕來保護與維持人類與自然環境的健康 [7-10]。
  1. 主張沒有農藥與肥料,透過代代耕種,農作物不只會越來越適應該生長環境,還能與土壤中的微生物共同創造互利共生的環境 [7-10]。
  1. 不進行除草、堆肥與耕耘,任其自由發展,採用自然栽培,順應季節,與自然環境共同生長 [7-10]。

整體而言,自然農法屬於回歸根本的農法,順應、了解季節與環境,重視生物原有的生長,將自然生態視為一個生命體,在土地上因地制宜耕種對人體與環境均健康的農作物,進而創造出具有生物多樣性,彼此互利共生的平衡體系[7-10],一起和茶水部 LittoTea 創造更美好的生活環境。

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃.

 

Organic agriculture issues

The original intention of organic agriculture is to pursue the sustaining environment. However, most people usually only focus on the standard test of pesticide residue. Zero pesticide residue does not equal to organic plantation. Organic agriculture includes the whole process of production, from the plantation, surrounding environment, processing and packaging. Therefore, in addition to chemical free production, all plantation activities and materials used in the plantation are required to be recorded and reviewed. Comparing to zero pesticide residue policy in Taiwan, the tests of pesticide residue in the States and EU allow a safe level pesticide residue. Due to the tight pesticide residue tolerance and high penalty in Taiwan, even some light contamination from air or neighborhood, some farmers are reluctant to apply the organic certification.  Organic license should support the intention to protect the environment and the right of producers. If the regulation of the organic farming is not reasonably revised to fit Taiwan agriculture, it would be extremely challenging to recruit more small farm producers to join organic plantation.

For the organic certification, the farmlands in Taiwan are so intensive that it is difficult maintaining zero-polluted farming environment. In addition, farmers usually reduce the production to prevent from the pollution, pests and diseases. The certification of organic agriculture also needs the regular examination every year. Consumers only pay a little to have good organic produce while those farmers make efforts, spending a lot of time and money to produce these organic products[1-5].

On the other hand, local production and sales can be considered for organic agriculture. The purpose of organic agriculture is to promote the sustainability. However, transport for organic agriculture not only is the cost but pollutes the environment, which may violate the value of the sustainability. Therefore, rather than the symbol of certification, local production and sales could be able to minimize the cost and pollution of transport, which may be developed in the future. For example, Austria adopts two marks to distinguish from the origin of the production, which can promote local produce and support local farmers. Local sales reduce the pollution of transport. Meanwhile, consumers can understand the origin of produce, and be encouraged to buy local products [4-5].

Natural farming is similar to organic agriculture, which can expand to the flow of the ecosystem. Natural farming not only changes pesticides and chemical fertilizers into organic fertilizers but respects the natural development in the nature, which can be separated into three categories [7-10]:

  1. Respect the nature, adequately make use of the soil, and reduce the loss of nutrients. The purpose of compost is to maintain nutrients in the soil because the soil is all resources that crops need, which may meanwhile lower the pollution in water and air. Therefore, natural farming not only includes safe produce but maintain people’s health and protect the environment [7-10].
  1. Promote not to use pesticides and fertilizers. Crops would adapt themselves to the environment through generations of farming. In addition, it will develop the symbiosis with microorganism in the soil[7-10].
  1. Let the farmland develop by itself without any weeding, compost and cultivation. Adopt natural cultivation and seasons, and grow together with the environment [7-10].

Generally, natural farming promotes the natural development, respects seasons and the environment, and takes the nature alive. Cultivating crops according to local situations is beneficial both for people and the environment, which would help maintain biological diversity, and create the mutual-beneficial balance system [7-10]. Please join LittoTea to make a better living environment.

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃.

 

Reference

[1]http://info.organic.org.tw/supergood/front/bin/ptdetail.phtml?Part=20160525&Rcg=100361

[2]http://www.seinsights.asia/article/3291/3272/4000

[3]http://www2.nihs.tp.edu.tw/~nihscyber12a/4-1-2.htm

[4]http://www.coa.gov.tw/view.php?catid=2447906

[5]http://www.huf.org.tw/essay/content/2714

[6]http://organic.supergood.com.tw/supergood/front/bin/ptdetail.phtml?Part=foreign-5&PreView=1

[7]http://works.firstwalker.com.tw/homegreen/culture.htm

[8]http://www.moa.org.tw/nature

[9]http://www.moa.org.tw/node/64

[10]http://e-info.org.tw/node/100446

Lynn Chiang

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