怎麼分辨生茶與熟茶?

生茶是綠茶嗎? 熟茶又是什麼?

生茶熟茶與介於中間的半熟茶均屬於部分發酵茶,只是依照製茶加工過程中的焙火程度不同而有這些分類。烘火是在茶葉製成之後用火慢慢烘焙,可以降低茶葉的含水量,改變茶葉與茶湯的品質,使茶葉散發清香熟果香,適當地增加焙火香氣,將茶葉原本寒涼的特性變溫暖一些。一般來說,焙火程度越高的茶湯顏色越暗紅,熟香味越重,相對也散失較多香氣,不過焙火也不宜過重,否則就會破壞茶葉原有的香氣與品質[1-2]。

生茶是指未經焙火或輕度焙火的茶,生茶茶湯呈青色或黃色,散發清香味,口感清涼但強烈,帶有些苦澀味,也因為烘焙少,保留較多的咖啡因單寧酸,通常較有刺激性,去油解膩降血脂的效果也較為明顯。中度烘焙的茶為半熟茶,例如鐵觀音烏龍茶[3-4]。

熟茶則指烘焙程度高的茶,熟茶茶湯為橙紅色,有熟香味,口感溫和甘醇,較少苦澀味,也因為烘焙程度高,茶多酚咖啡因單寧酸等物質揮發較多,刺激性較低,較不刺激腸胃,對睡眠品質的影響也較小[3-4]。

生茶 烘焙程度低 呈青色、黃色 清香味 強烈苦澀
熟茶 烘焙程度高 呈橙紅色 熟果味 甘甜圓潤

發酵程度與烘焙程度是截然不同的兩件事,通常經過發酵的金萱翠玉製作過程沒有包含焙火,所以可以視為生茶四季春包種茶也是同樣的道理,而雖然紅茶為完全發酵,但因為其製作過程中沒有焙火的程序,因此照理來說紅茶並不算是熟茶[5]。或許下次你可以在白天時,來一杯生茶,稍微提神振奮一下,然後傍晚時,來一杯熟茶,好好放鬆,舒緩疲勞,這樣的生活聽起來是不是很不錯呢!

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃茶藝.

 

Introduction to raw tea and ripe tea

Raw tea, half-ripe tea and ripe tea are all partially fermented tea with different degrees of roast. Roasting gradually with fire, the added process, lowers the water of tea, changes the quality of tea, and makes tea light or ripe scent with roasting smell. The cold characteristic of tea is changed warmer through roast. Generally, heavier roasted tea becomes darker red and has stronger ripe scent, but losses more fragrance. Too much roast could damage original scent and quality of tea[1-2].

Raw tea is tea without roast or with mild roast. It is usually green or yellow, has the light scent, and tastes strong with quite bitterness. Raw tea contains more caffeine and tannic acid due to fewer roast, which would help reduce fat more. Half-ripe tea is tea with moderate roast tea, such as oolong tea or tieguanyin tea[3-4].

Ripe tea is tea with heavy roast. It is orange, has ripe scent, and tastes soft and sweet aftertaste. Polyphenols, caffeine and tannic acid volatilize more in ripe tea due to heavier roast. Therefore, ripe tea stimulate stomach less and has little influence on sleeping[3-4].

Raw tea little roast green or yellow color light fragrance strong and bitter
Ripe tea heavy roast orange color ripe scent soft and sweet aftertaste

There is difference between fermentation and roast.  Jinxuan tea, jade tea usually is processed without roast. Therefore, they can be seen as raw tea. So does four seasons tea and pouching tea. However, black tea which is fully fermented is processed without roast, so black tea doesn’t equal ripe tea[5]. Maybe you can drink raw tea to refresh yourself in the daytime, and have a cup of ripe tea to relax in the evening. This life style sounds great!

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃茶藝.

 

Reference

[1]發酵、不發酵、生茶熟茶…你會分常喝的茶嗎?

http://health.udn.com/health/story/6037/349161

[2]http://www.gtes.ilc.edu.tw/infoseed2/course/teacyber/tea/category.htm

[3]http://goodtea.hsinchu.gov.tw/page.aspx?wtp=1&wnd=634&id=26

[4]http://yaosing.pixnet.net/blog/post/44792535-%E4%BB%80%E9%BA%BD%E6%98%AF%E7%94%9F%E8%8C%B6%E3%80%81%E7%86%9F%E8%8C%B6%EF%BC%9F-

[5] http://blog.xuite.net/stephen_cyk/stephen/40531896-%E7%94%9F%E8%8C%B6.%E7%86%9F%E8%8C%B6%E6%90%9E%E4%B8%8D%E6%B8%85%E6%A5%9A%3F!+%E5%86%8D%E5%8A%A0%E4%B8%8A%E8%8C%B6%E7%9A%84%E7%99%BC%E9%85%B5%E5%BA%A6%E5%88%86%E9%A1%9E,+%E9%82%A3%E5%B0%B1%E6%9B%B4%E8%AA%AA%E4%B8%8D%E6%B8%85%E6%A5%9A%E4%BA%86!

Lynn Chiang

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