台灣烏龍茶介紹

好像常常聽到有很多種烏龍茶? 如何製作?

烏龍茶是青茶的一種,屬於部分發酵茶,發酵程度大約50%-60%。烏龍茶製作過程前半段以輕攪拌方式,後半段則採重萎凋,促進發酵,加深葉緣氧化,呈現綠葉帶紅邊的樣子,最後經過烘焙之後,茶湯呈暗紅色。傳統烏龍茶的茶種可以分為青心烏龍或青心大冇[1-3]:

青心烏龍 別名軟枝烏龍或種茶,樹型較小,枝葉開張茂密,葉片呈橢圓形,但樹勢較弱,對抗病蟲害的能力差,耐旱與耐寒性也較低,所以產量較低[1-3]。
青心大冇 別名青心或大冇,葉片略呈狹長型且葉緣呈具鋸齒狀,樹型橫張且樹勢強,因此產量較高[1-3]。

烏龍茶名為烏龍,據傳是當年有一位茶農在山上採完茶,將茶葉放在竹簍裡揹下山,在下山顛簸的過程中,竹簍裡的茶葉左右搖晃,經過碰撞後,產生了像花一樣的清香,而茶農發現後,將此用於茶葉加工,形成日後的搖菁工藝。當時茶農無法解釋這種特別現象,加上在福建方言中,烏龍是糊里糊塗的意思,於是就將這種茶稱為烏龍茶,即糊里糊塗的茶[4]。

目前台灣有許多種改良創新的烏龍茶,每一種烏龍茶都各具有不同的特色。傳統烏龍茶茶葉呈半球狀,製作屬於輕度或中度焙火,注重果香。高山烏龍茶通常偏好輕發酵以及輕焙火,保留較多原本的茶香與豐富的口感。凍頂烏龍茶原本屬於中度發酵,注重焙火,茶湯呈現深紅色,近年來也逐漸嘗試輕度發酵,大約15%-20%的發酵程度,具有茶葉的清香味,茶色金黃透亮,口感甘甜醇厚[5-7]。

另外,重發酵且重烘焙的烏龍茶,當屬白毫烏龍,又可以稱為膨風茶或東方美人,只採用最鮮嫩的茶葉製作,散發熟果香或是蜂蜜味,口感甘醇圓潤。最後,近年來經過改良,成為烏龍茶全新選擇的紅烏龍,是結合烏龍茶與紅茶品質所研發出來的新興特色茶,茶葉呈半球狀且色澤暗紅,加工過程簡單,採重度發酵,發酵程度可視為烏龍茶類最高,同時也注重烘焙,散發熟果香,茶湯水色紅橙,口感甘甜滑潤,不論熱泡與冷泡都非常適合[5-7]。

光是烏龍茶就有分好多種類,每一種你都試過了嗎?

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃茶藝.

 

Introduction to Taiwan oolong tea

Oolong tea, a kind of celadon tea, is partially fermented tea with about 50%-60% of ferment. Oolong tea is processed by stirring at first, and is withered heavily to accelerate ferment. The leaf margin is oxidized, and become green leaves with red edge. Oolong tea turns into dark red after roast. Tea trees of oolong tea can be divided into green tip oolong variety and chinshin dapang[1-3]:

green tip oolong variety Called chinshin oolong as well. Trees are small, and the elliptical leaves are lush. However, the production of the tea trees is lower due to its weak resistance to pests and the weather[1-3].
chinshin dapang Named chinshin or dapang as well. Leaves look acuminate and serrate. The production of the tea trees is higher due to its stronger tree vigour[1-3].

The name of oolong tea arises from the meaning, oolong, which is confusing in Fujian dialect. A farmer put tea in the basket, and the basket shakes on his way walking down the mountain. Tea collides and smells like flowers eventually. He is confused at the phenomenon. Therefore, people start to call it oolong tea, confusing tea, from then on[4].

There are many kinds of oolong tea which has different characteristic respectively in Taiwan. Traditional oolong tea is loose ball shape, processed with light or moderate roast, and has the ripe fruit scent. High mountain oolong tea is usually processed with light ferment and roast, retaining more original scent and taste. Dong ding oolong is originally processed with moderate ferment and the roast, and the color of tea looks dark red. However, it gradually turns to light ferment these years at about 15%-20% of ferment. Tea with light ferment smells lightly fragrant, has the sweet aftertaste, and the color looks brightly golden[5-7].

Furthermore, white tipped oolong, also called oriental beauty, is produced by the freshest tea with the heavy ferment and roast. It tastes soft and sweet, has the ripe fruit scent or smells like honey. Red oolong tea, a new choice for oolong tea, combines characteristics of oolong tea and black tea. The process is easy to make tea loose ball shape and dark red with the strongest degree of ferment. Tea smells like ripe fruit, looks red orange, and tastes sweet and soft. It is recommend to brew both in high temperature and low temperature[5-7].

Taiwan oolong tea has been developed diversely recently, and all of them has their own features. Have you tried them all?

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃茶藝.

 

Reference

[1]https://kmweb.coa.gov.tw/subject/ct.asp?xItem=161891&ctNode=1647&mp=86&kpi=0&hashid=

[2]http://www.gtes.ilc.edu.tw/infoseed2/course/teacyber/tea/category.htm

[3]https://kmweb.coa.gov.tw/subject/ct.asp?xItem=161894&ctNode=1647&mp=86&kpi=0&hashid=

[4]http://leomaggie.nidbox.com/diary/read/7613932

[5]http://jamesz.pixnet.net/blog/post/21998908-%E5%96%9D%E6%9D%AF%E5%A5%BD%E8%8C%B6%EF%BC%8C%E5%87%8D%E9%A0%82%E7%83%8F%E9%BE%8D%E8%8C%B6%E7%9A%84%E7%94%B1%E4%BE%86

[6]http://www.tres.gov.tw/view.php?catid=2284

[7]http://www.tres.gov.tw/view.php?catid=1559

 

Lynn Chiang

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