台灣鐵觀音茶介紹

菩薩降下甘霖 「鐵觀音」

鐵觀音起初是張氏祖先從中國大陸安溪將其移植到台灣,而後經過日治與光復後台灣茶葉改良場加以改良而發展起來的。鐵觀音茶樹樹勢弱且枝芽較稀疏,與一般茶樹不同,所以產量少,也因為葉面大多面向陽光,因此鐵觀音單寧酸含量也較高。鐵觀音屬於烏龍茶的一種,為半發酵茶,有較大的發酵空間可以發展,因此發酵程度從15%到50%均有製作,其香味也依發酵程度不同,散發出淡淡的蘭花香或濃郁的花果香[1-3]。

除了發酵程度影響香氣之外,製作過程中的烘焙揉捻也是很重要的影響因素,將尚未全乾的鐵觀音茶葉以布巾包成球狀,輕輕揉捻後以小火慢慢烘焙,反覆翻攪所造成的互相摩擦,反而促進化學變化,散發出特別的香氣與味道,葉色與葉緣也分別因為發酵而轉為淡綠與紅色[2-3]。

不過你知道鐵觀音這個特別的名字怎麼來的嗎?相傳乾隆年間有兩個故事,首先是某位張姓書生在荒園之中,發現一株茶樹,與一般茶樹截然不同,於是將它移往他處另行栽種,並採摘製作成茶獻給皇帝,皇帝飲用後深感驚豔,茶色色深似鐵且味道濃郁甘醇,有如菩薩降下甘霖,又因為此茶樹發現於南山觀音巖下,故名為鐵觀音;其次是某位魏姓村民篤信佛教,每日以一杯清茶供奉觀世音菩薩,菩薩感於村民的虔誠而賜與一株茶樹,此茶樹色澤亮麗且沉重似鐵,散發獨特香氣,又因菩薩所賜,故名為鐵觀音[2-3]。

鐵觀音茶湯色澤油亮,氣味兼具,香氣持久濃郁且味道濃厚,微澀中帶有甘醇,經過輕度烘焙的鐵觀音茶呈黃色、橙紅色,中度或重度烘焙的鐵觀音茶則呈橙紅或棕紅色。鐵觀音有豐富的維生素胺基酸,可以防止動脈硬化美容抗衰老,還有豐富的可以維持體內酸鹼平衡,並有助於大腦發育[4]。

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄萃茶藝.

 

Introduction to tieguanyin tea

Tieguanyin tea was transplanted from China, Anxi to Taiwan by the ancestor whose surname is Zhang, then developed by Tea Research and Extension Station. The trees of tieguanyin tea are weaker and thinner, compared to most of tea trees, which results in lower production. Tieguanyin tea, a kind of oolong tea, is partially fermented tea. There is wide range of fermentation, from 15% to 50% with the fragrance varying. Meanwhile, trees of tieguanyin tea grow toward the sun. Therefore, tieguanyin tea contains more tannic acid[1-3]. Two tea processes, roast and rolling, influence the fragrance as well. The step, wrap not all dry tieguanyin tea in globular shape, then roast it in small fire with rolling, activates chemical changes, which makes tieguanyin tea special smell and taste, and the leaves turn red eventually[2-3].

Let’s talk about the name of tieguanyin tea. It is rumored that the name came from either stories in Qing Dynasty. First, Zhang scholar found one tea tree, different from others, in desolate farm, and transplanted it to other place. One day, the emperor felt amazed after drinking it, just like Buddha gifted rain. The color of the tree was dark, like iron, and it tasted strong and sweet. Besides, the tree was found at Nanshan Guanyinyan. Therefore, the emperor named it tieguanyin tea. Second, Wei villager worshiped Buddhism, and worshiped a cup of tea to Buddha every day. Buddha gifted a tea tree for his piety. The color of the tree was dark, like iron, and it smelled great. Therefore, it was named tieguanyin tea in honor of Buddha[2-3].

Tieguanyin tea smells strong, tasting sweet and quite bitter with the shiny surface. Mild roasted tieguanyin tea is yellow or orange, and moderate or heavy roasted one is orange or brown. Tieguanyin tea contains rich vitamins and amino acids, which can prevent arteriosclerosis and helps keep beauty. Furthermore, rich selenium in tieguanyin tea keeps body acid-base balance and helps brain development[4].

-Research team @ 茶水部 LittoTea, 澄翠茶藝.

 

Reference

[1]http://www.gtes.ilc.edu.tw/infoseed2/course/teacyber/tea/category.htm

[2]http://www.recreational-agriculture.taipei/ct.asp?xItem=27982220&CtNode=54029&mp=10500K

[3]http://wsdo.gov.taipei/ct.asp?xItem=34922&ctNode=4757&mp=124121

[4] 鐵觀音屬於什麼茶?鐵觀音營養功效分析http://hk.huaxia.com/hxjk/jkys/shbj/2015/03/4302972.html

Lynn Chiang

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